end of the Napoleonic Wars, a number of factors encouraged
large-scale immigration from the British Isles to America. In
the 1820s and 1830s the enclosures of rural England and Scotland
disorganized the countryside and plunged thousands of
agricultural labourers in poverty. Associated with
overpopulation in Britain, rumours of economic opportunities in
America, and relatively cheap rates of passage on the timber
ships, it encouraged immigration. In the 1840s and 1850s, the
main push factor was the potato disease in Ireland, which
brought a majority of Irish Catholics.
1830: 25,000 immigrants from the British Isles came to North
America every year.
1840s: 100,000 immigrants from the British Isles came to North
America every year (2/3 from Ireland). About 50%
of these immigrants went to British North America, and 66% of
those to Upper Canada.
about 350,000 immigrants to BNA, but 200,000 left for
increase of the North American population was due above all to
the high birth rate, averaging 50 births per thousand,
throughout the period. As a result, between the years 1800 and
1842, the population of Upper Canada rose from 40,000 to
500,000, while that of Lower Canada rose from 200,000 to
800,000, and that of the Maritimes rose from 80,000 to 400,000.
The population pressure in Lower Canada was strong enough to
send thousands of immigrants south to New Hampshire and