Immigration

 

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Canada always was a country of immigration, but before the 1960s immigration was limited in numbers to an annual quota of around 150,000 immigrants and it was based on ethnic discrimination. The prevalent theory was that of the “absorptive capacity of Canadian society” both in economic terms (hence the limited number of immigrants) and in cultural terms (hence the preference for white immigrants). Therefore before the 1960s, 90% of immigrants came from Europe and the US.

 

 

 

Things began to change around 1960; discriminatory immigration policies were more and more at odds with Canada’s liberal internationalism and its stand against apartheid. Moreover, it became clear after 1960 that Europe would no longer provide the immigrants necessary to support Canada’s economy and compensate for the falling birth rate.

 

This led to the 1962 and 1967 revisions of the Immigration Act, which reduced the color bias that had restricted immigration from non-whites.

 

The new immigration policy aims at attracting skilled people from all over the world. Every year a quota of immigrants is voted by the federal Parliament; it is distributed between three classes of immigrants:

- economic immigrants, especially skilled workers:

- people with family in Canada

- humanitarian immigrants (including refugees)

 

The "skilled workers" category is by far the largest and people are given points according to their language skills, education and work experience.  The goal is to attract young, bilingual, educated, mobile, and competent workers.

 

 

 

 

2015 : 271,845 new permanent residents with

62.7% economic immigrants

24.1% in the family class category

13.2% in the humanitarian category (including refugees)

 

As a result of this large yearly input of immigrants, the Canadian population increased from 18 million to 35 million between 1960 to 2011, while the proportion foreign-born population has steadily increased to reach 20.6%.

 

Figure 1 Number and share of the foreign-born population in Canada, 1901 to 2006

Number and share of the foreign-born population in Canada, 1901 to 2006

http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-557/figures/c1-eng.cfm

Figure 4 Foreign-born as a percentage of metropolitan population, 2006

Foreign-born as a percentage of metropolitan population, 2006

http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-557/figures/c4-eng.cfm

 

http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/2011001/c-g/c-g01-eng.cfm

Taux d’immigration bruts en 2011

Pays

Population totale

Immigrants permanents admis

Pourcentage

Canada

          34 7432 780

          249 748

0,72

États-Unis

          311 591 917

          1 061 400

0,34

Australie

          21 766 711

          219 500

1,01

France

          65 296 094

          211 300

0,32

Allemagne

          81 471 834

          290 800

0,36

Royaume-Uni

          62 698 362

          321 200

0,51

 

http://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?lang=fr

 

Canada's immigration is not only large, it is also extremely diverse: in the 2011 census, immigrants reported close to 200 countries as a place of birth.

Since the 1960s, the sources of immigration have changed:  in the past, 80% of all immigrants to Canada came from Europe while today, Asia (including the Middle East) is Canada's largest source of immigrants.

Between 2006 and 2011, immigrants came from

- 57 % Asia including the Middle East

- 13,7 % Europe

- 12.5 % Africa

- 12.3% Latin America and the Caribbean

- 4% United States

 

http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/2011001/c-g/c-g02-eng.cfm

 

Permanent Residents Admitted in 2015, by Top 10 Countries of Citizenship

Rank

Country

Number

Percentage

1

Philippines

50,846

18.7%

2

India

39,530

14.5%

3

People’s Republic of China

19,532

7.2%

4

Iran

11,669

4.3%

5

Pakistan

11,329

4.2%

6

Syria

9,853

3.6%

7

United States of America

7,522

3.0%

8

France

5,807

2.0%

9

United Kingdom and Colonies

5,451

2.0%

10

Nigeria

4,133

2.0%

Total top 10 countries of citizenship

165,672

61.5%

Other countries of citizenship

106,173

38.5%

Total

271,845

100%

 

Source: IRCC, Permanent Resident Data as of May 31, 2016

http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/annual-report-2016/index.asp#abimm

 

 

Immigration in 2006 : Highlights from the 2006 Census

http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-557/p1-eng.cfm

 

Immigration in 2011 : Highlights from the 2011 Census

http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/99-010-x2011001-eng.cfm